Mitogenic G protein‐coupled receptors, such as those for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and thrombin, activate the Ras/MAP kinase pathway via pertussis toxin (PTX)‐sensitive Gi, tyrosine kinase activity and recruitment of Grb2, which targets guanine nucleotide exchange activity to Ras. Little is known about the tyrosine phosphorylations involved, although Src activation and Shc phosphorylation are thought to be critical. We find that agonist‐induced Src activation in Rat‐1 cells is not mediated by Gi and shows no correlation with Ras/MAP kinase activation. Furthermore, LPA‐induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc is PTX‐insensitive and Ca2+‐dependent in COS cells, but undetectable in Rat‐1 cells. Expression of dominant‐negative Src or Shc does not affect MAP kinase activation by LPA. Thus, Gi‐mediated Ras/MAP kinase activation in fibroblasts and COS cells involves neither Src nor Shc. Instead, we detect a 100 kDa tyrosine‐phosphorylated protein (p100) that binds to the C‐terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 in a strictly Gi‐ and agonist‐dependent manner. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3‐kinase inhibitor, prevent p100–Grb2 complex formation and MAP kinase activation by LPA. Our results suggest that the p100–Grb2 complex, together with an upstream non‐Src tyrosine kinase and PI 3‐kinase, couples Gi to Ras/MAP kinase activation, while Src and Shc act in a different pathway.
The mechanisms by which G protein‐coupled receptors activate the mitogen‐activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade are not well defined. Pertussis toxin (PTX)‐sensitive Gi‐coupled receptors, such as those for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), thrombin and α2‐adrenergic agonists, initiate a pathway that involves stimulation of Ras‐GTP accumulation through intermediate tyrosine kinase activity (Alblas et al., 1993; van Corven et al., 1993; Hordijk et al., 1994; Moolenaar, 1995a; van Biesen et al., 1995; Luttrell et al., 1996). Recent studies have identified βγ subunit released from Gi as the primary initiator of this pathway (Crespo et al., 1994; Koch et al., 1994).
Several candidate tyrosine kinases have been proposed to serve as intermediaries between Gi and Ras/MAP kinase activation, including Src family kinases (Luttrel et al., 1996), Syk (in B cells; Wan et al., 1996), Pyk2 (in PC12 cells; Dikic et al., 1996) and even the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (Daub et al., 1996). Src family kinases are rapidly and transiently activated by various G protein‐coupled receptor agonists, including LPA, thrombin, bombesin and bradykinin (Jalink et al., 1993; Chen et al., 1994; Luttrell et al., 1996; Rodriguez‐Fernandez and Rozengurt, 1996). Active c‐Src is thought to mediate Ras/MAP kinase activation through tyrosine phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Shc and its subsequent association with the Grb2 adaptor (Luttrell et al., 1996), which directs the GDP/GTP exchanger Sos to Ras (Lowenstein et al., 1992; Buday and Downward, 1993). Consistent with this, overexpression of the C‐terminal Src kinase (CSK), a negative regulator of Src family kinases, inhibits LPA‐induced MAP kinase activation in COS and PC12 cells (Dikic et al., 1996; Luttrel et al., 1996). On the other hand, antibody inhibition of Src family tyrosine kinases in quiescent fibroblasts does not interfere with the mitogenic response to either LPA or bombesin (Roche et al., 1995).
An alternative mechanism has been proposed by Daub et al. (1996), who suggested that G protein‐coupled receptors activate MAP kinase in Rat‐1 cells through ‘transactivation’ of the EGF receptor in an EGF‐independent manner. The activated receptor would then serve as a scaffold for recruitment of the Grb2–Sos complex via tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc.
In addition to protein tyrosine kinase activity, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3‐kinase activity has also been implicated in Gi‐mediated mitogenic signaling upstream of Ras, a notion largely based on the use of specific PI 3‐kinase inhibitors (Pace et al., 1995; Hawes et al., 1996).
PTX‐insensitive G proteins can also mediate MAP kinase activation. This mode of activation is mediated by the phospholipase C (PLC)/Ca2+/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway in a Ras‐independent manner (Blumer and Johnson, 1994; Hawes et al., 1995). Since many receptors couple to more than one G protein subtype, their activation will initiate multiple effector systems, which hampers unraveling of the downstream biochemical pathways. In Rat‐1 cells, however, LPA‐ and thrombin‐induced activation of the MAP kinase pathway is mediated solely by Gi‐regulated Ras activation, with no detectable contribution of the PLC/Ca2+/PKC pathway (Alblas et al., 1993; van Corven et al., 1993; Hordijk et al., 1994).
In this study, we set out to further investigate the signaling pathway that couples Gi to Ras‐dependent MAP kinase activation. Using Rat‐1 fibroblasts and COS cells, we show that Gi‐mediated MAP kinase activation requires neither Src nor Shc. We report the detection of a 100 kDa tyrosine‐phosphorylated protein, p100, that preferentially binds to the C‐terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 following LPA or thrombin stimulation. Our findings suggest a model in which the p100–Grb2 complex, together with an upstream non‐Src tyrosine kinase and a wortmannin‐sensitive PI 3‐kinase, links Gi to Ras/MAP kinase activation, with Src and Shc functioning in a separate pathway.
Agonist‐induced MAP kinase activation: effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and wortmannin
In Rat‐1 cells, LPA‐ and thrombin‐induced activation of Ras and the downstream MAP kinase cascade is inhibited by genistein and stauroporine at doses that have little or no effect on EGF‐induced Ras/MAP kinase activation (van Corven et al., 1993; Hordijk et al., 1994). We assessed the specificity and dose dependence of these inhibitors in COS‐7 cells transfected with epitope‐tagged MAP kinase and stimulated by either LPA or EGF. As shown in Figure 1A, LPA‐induced MAP kinase activation is much more sensitive to genistein than is the response to EGF: at a dose (10 μM) that inhibits the response to LPA by >80%, EGF action is virtually unaffected. Similarly, staurosporine inhibits LPA signaling approximately five times more potently than EGF signaling (Figure 1B).
We also tested the effect of the PI 3‐kinase inhibitor wortmannin (Wymann et al., 1996). Wortmannin inhibits LPA‐induced MAP kinase activation in COS cells with an IC50 of ∼10 nM, whereas the response to EGF is much less affected (Figure 1C). We found that in Rat‐1 cells, wortmannin inhibits LPA‐induced MAP kinase activation with a similar IC50 value to that in COS cells (data not shown). These results support the notion that Gi‐mediated Ras/MAP kinase activation involves both a protein tyrosine kinase and a wortmannin‐sensitive PI 3‐kinase.
Agonist‐induced Src activation: uncoupling from Ras/MAP kinase activation
To assess the role of Src activation in G protein‐mediated mitogenic signaling, we measured agonist‐induced association of c‐Src with tyrosine‐phosphorylated proteins, rather than Src in vitro kinase activity. In chicken fibroblasts, activated Src forms a complex with two tyrosine phosphoproteins of 110 and 130 kDa (p110 and p130; Reynolds et al., 1989; Kanner et al., 1991). In Rat‐1 cells, LPA rapidly and transiently induces the association of c‐Src with two tyrosine phosphoproteins of 110 and 130 kDa (Figure 2A), indicative of Src ‘activation’. The response reaches a maximum within 1 min of LPA stimulation and returns to pre‐stimulation levels between 10 and 30 min.
We also tested the effect of endothelin, which strongly activates the PLC/Ca2+/PKC pathway (van der Bend et al., 1992) but fails to stimulate Ras–GTP accumulation and MAP kinase activation in Rat‐1 cells (van Corven et al., 1993; Hordijk et al., 1994). As shown in Figure 2B, endothelin is even more effective than LPA in stimulating the association of c‐Src with p110 and p130, whereas the peptide does not detectably activate MAP kinase. PTX pre‐treatment of the cells did not inhibit Src–p110–p130 association induced by either LPA or endothelin (not shown).
To abrogate endogenous Src signaling, we used a kinase‐inactive c‐Src mutant (K295M mutation; Roche et al., 1995), which should act in a dominant‐negative manner by binding to proteins that interact with activated Src family members. Expression of Src(K295M) in COS cells has no detectable effect on LPA‐ and EGF‐induced MAP kinase activation (Figure 2C), despite high expression levels of Src(K295M) (not shown); in parallel assays the inhibitory effect of dominant‐negative Ras (RasN17) was readily observed (Figure 2C). Likewise, LPA‐induced MAP kinase activity in Rat‐1 cells stably expressing dominant‐negative Src was not detectably inhibited (Figure 2D), whereas Src‐mediated gap junction closure was completely prevented by this Src mutant (F.Postma, T.Hengeveld, J.Alblas, G.Zondag and W.Moolenaar, submitted for publication). Furthermore, we used fibroblasts derived from mice that lack c‐Src (Bockholt and Burridge, 1995). In these Src‐deficient cells, LPA‐induced MAP kinase activation is readily detectable (as is the response to peptide growth factors; Figure 2E). Taken together, these results indicate that Src does not function in Gi‐mediated Ras/MAP kinase activation.
Tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc: uncoupling from Gi‐mediated MAP kinase activation and dependence on Ca2+
Tyrosine‐phosphorylated Shc has been implicated in Gi‐mediated Ras signaling by virtue of its ability to bind the Grb2–Sos complex (Touhara et al., 1995; Chen et al., 1996; Luttrell et al., 1996). As shown in Figure 3 (right panel), stimulation of COS cells with either LPA or EGF causes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the three Shc protein isoforms (p46, p52 and p66). However, pre‐treatment of the cells with PTX has no effect on LPA‐induced Shc phosphorylation, whereas MAP kinase activation is completely inhibited (Figure 3, right panels). Figure 3 also shows that wortmannin has no effect on Shc phosphorylation induced by either LPA or EGF.
In contrast to what is observed in COS cells, LPA‐induced Shc phosphorylation in Rat‐1 cells is not detectable under conditions where the response to EGF is pronounced (Figure 3, left panels). To further assess the role of Shc, we used a mutant version of Shc consisting of the isolated SH2 domain, designed to compete with endogenous Shc for binding to upstream tyrosine‐phosphorylated proteins (Baldari et al., 1995). Transfection of Shc‐SH2 into COS cells attenuates EGF‐induced MAP kinase activation by ∼50%, without affecting the response to LPA (Figure 4).
We next examined whether Shc may function in the PTX‐resistant Gq‐mediated PLC/Ca2+/PKC pathway. Figure 5A shows that both phorbol ester and the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc. When intracellular stores are depleted of Ca2+ by treatment with either thapsigargin or ionomycin/EGTA, LPA‐induced Shc phosphorylation is inhibited (Figure 5B); in contrast, EGF‐induced Shc phosphorylation is not affected in Ca2+‐depleted cells (Figure 5C). Thus, Ca2+ signaling is required for LPA‐induced, but not EGF‐induced Shc phosphorylation. Chronic phorbol ester treatment, in an attempt to down‐regulate PKC, stimulated Shc phosphorylation to the same extent as acute treatment (Figure 5B and results not shown), suggesting that PKC down‐regulation was incomplete.
From these results we conclude that LPA‐induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc is not involved in the Gi‐mediated MAP kinase pathway, but is secondary to Gq‐mediated Ca2+ mobilization and PKC activation.
Involvement of a 100 kDa tyrosine‐phosphorylated Grb2 binding protein
If Shc is not involved in Gi‐mediated Ras signaling, which tyrosine phosphorylation event links Gi to the recruitment of Grb2? To answer this question we set out to identify Grb2 binding proteins. Cellular proteins that bind to GST–Grb2 fusion proteins were purified on glutathione beads and analyzed by anti‐phosphotyrosine immunoblotting. Using this protocol, we detected a tyrosine‐phosphorylated protein of 100 kDa, termed p100, that associates with Grb2 in response to LPA stimulation (Figure 6A). Using GST alone, no specific signals were detected (not shown). If p100 functions in the Gi/Ras pathway, its association with Grb2 should be sensitive to PTX. Indeed, pre‐treatment of the cells with PTX prevents the interaction between Grb2 and p100 (Figure 6A). In addition to LPA, thrombin and serum (which contains LPA; Moolenaar, 1995b) also induce p100–Grb2 complex formation (Figure 6B). In marked contrast, the peptide endothelin, which activates the Gq/PLC but not the Gi/Ras pathway in Rat‐1 cells, fails to induce p100–Grb2 complex formation.
We were unable to assess whether the Grb2–100 complex is also induced by EGF, because of the many bands present in the 100–120 kDa region upon EGF stimulation (Figure 6B). Among the multiple tyrosine‐phosphorylated Grb2 binding proteins in this region, we identified the p120cbl proto‐oncogene product (cf. Galisteo et al., 1995; Meisner and Czech, 1995). However, tyrosine‐phosphorylated c‐Cbl was not detected in LPA‐stimulated cells; we also excluded the possibility that p100 is an isoform of dynamin, a Grb2 binding GTPase involved in receptor‐mediated endocytosis (Wang and Moran, 1996; O.Kranenburg and I.Verlaan, unpublished observations).
We next examined the effects of genistein, staurosporine and wortmannin, at doses that inhibit Gi‐mediated MAP kinase activation (cf. Figure 1). Treatment of the cells with any of these inhibitors prevents p100–Grb2 complex formation upon LPA stimulation (Figure 6C). In some experiments we observed two additional tyrosine‐phosphorylated proteins of ∼90 and 110 kDa (p90 and p110) that also bind to Grb2 in response to LPA. However, although inhibited by genistein and staurosporine, the latter interactions are insensitive to either PTX or wortmannin (Figure 6B and C). We conclude that p100–Grb2, but not p90–Grb2 or p110–Grb2, lies on the route from Gi to Ras/MAP kinase activation in fibroblasts.
p100 preferentially binds to the C‐terminal SH3 domain of Grb2
Finally, we examined which Grb2 domain(s) mediates interaction with p100. Figure 6D shows the triplet of tyrosine‐phosphorylated proteins that bind to full‐length Grb2 in response to LPA, with the strongest signal corresponding to p100. Using three different GST–Grb2 deletion mutants, we found that p100 preferentially binds to the C‐terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 in an LPA‐dependent manner (Figure 6D), although it is seen that there is also some binding affinity for the N‐terminal SH3 domain of Grb2. We further note that p110 also binds to the C‐terminal Grb2‐SH3 domain, whereas p90 binds only to N‐terminal Grb2‐SH3 (Figure 6D). No detectable interaction was observed with the isolated SH2 domain of Grb2 (Figure 6D).
The present study provides new insights into the signaling events that link Gi‐coupled receptors to activation of the Ras/MAP kinase pathway. We have built on previous data showing that Gi‐mediated Ras/MAP kinase activation in fibroblasts stimulated by either LPA or thrombin involves genistein‐ and staurosporine‐sensitive tyrosine kinase activity (van Corven et al., 1993; Hordijk et al., 1994). Subsequent studies have shown that the Gi/Ras/MAP kinase cascade is initiated by βγ subunits and involves not only protein tyrosine kinase activity but also a wortmannin‐sensitive PI 3‐kinase; these steps somehow lead to recruitment of the Grb2 adaptor protein, which targets the nucleotide exchanger Sos to Ras at the plasma membrane (for references see Introduction).
Using LPA and thrombin as prototypic agonists, we have established that, contrary to previous views, Gi‐coupled receptors utilize neither Src nor tyrosine‐phosphorylated Shc to activate the Grb2‐mediated Ras/MAP kinase pathway in fibroblasts and COS cells. Instead, we find a tyrosine‐phosphorylated 100 kDa protein (p100) that binds to the C‐terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 and meets the criteria for linking Gi to Ras/MAP kinase activation.
Our conclusion that G protein‐mediated Src activation is not involved in MAP kinase activation is based on the following findings: (i) transient or stable expression of dominant‐negative Src in COS cells or Rat‐1 cells respectively does not interfere with LPA‐induced MAP kinase activation; (ii) LPA‐induced Src activation, as inferred from complex formation with p110 and p130, is insensitive to PTX and hence not downstream of Gi; (iii) the Gq‐coupled endothelin receptor mediates activation of c‐Src, but not that of Ras nor MAP kinase (Figure 2; van Corven et al., 1993; Hordijk et al., 1994); (iv) LPA‐induced MAP kinase activation is readily detected in Src‐deficient fibroblasts (Figure 2E). Our conclusion is supported by a previous report showing that Src family kinases are not required for LPA‐induced DNA synthesis in 3T3 cells (Roche et al., 1995).
A recent report showed that transient overexpression of the C‐terminal Src kinase (CSK), a negative regulator of Src family kinases, inhibits LPA‐induced Shc phosphorylation and MAP kinase activation in COS cells (Luttrel et al., 1996); dominant‐negative Src was not used in that study. We have no explanation for the discrepancy with the present results. In PC12 neuronal cells, Src family kinases may act in concert with the cell type‐specific Pyk2 tyrosine kinase to activate MAP kinase in response to LPA or bradykinin (Dikic et al., 1996).
In contrast to the situation with G protein‐coupled receptors, Src family kinases are required for PDGF and EGF receptor mitogenic signaling (Roche et al., 1995; Broome and Hunter, 1996; Erpel et al., 1996), where they may control the transcriptional activation of Myc in a Ras‐independent manner (Barone and Courtneidge, 1995). G protein‐regulated Src activation is likely to play a role in non‐mitogenic events mediated by PTX‐insensitive Gq/11 and/or G12/13, such as cytoskeletal remodeling and gap junction closure (F.Postma, T.Hengeveld, J.Alblas, G.Zondag and W.Moolenaar, submitted for publication).
Daub et al. (1996) suggested that transactivation of the EGF receptor links G protein‐coupled receptors to Ras‐dependent MAP kinase activation in Rat‐1 cells. Inconsistent with their model, the authors found strong EGF receptor activation by endothelin, which fails to activate Ras as well as MAP kinase in Rat‐1 cells, as mentioned above. In agreement with others using PC12 cells (Dikic et al., 1996), we have been unable to detect LPA‐induced phosphorylation of the EGF receptor in both Rat‐1 and COS cells (data not shown). Furthermore, it is noteworthy that EGF‐ and LPA‐induced MAP kinase activation show differential sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (Figure 1).
The adaptor protein Shc participates in a network of protein–protein interactions not necessarily leading to Ras activation (Bonfini et al., 1996). We have shown that Shc tyrosine phosphorylation is not involved in Gi‐mediated MAP kinase activation. First, although LPA‐induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc is detectable in COS cells, PTX does not inhibit this response under conditions where MAP kinase activation is blocked. Second, expression of the dominant‐negative Shc‐SH2 domain (Baldari et al., 1995) has no effect on LPA‐induced MAP kinase activation, whereas the response to EGF is significantly attenuated. Finally, in Rat‐1 cells, LPA‐induced MAP kinase activation occurs in the absence of detectable tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc. In agreement with this finding, a recent study showed that a transfected Gi‐coupled receptor mediates MAP kinase activation in the absence of Shc phosphorylation in mouse fibroblasts (Torres and Ye, 1996). LPA‐induced Shc phosphorylation in COS cells is mimicked by Ca2+ ionophore and phorbol ester and, furthermore, is abrogated in Ca2+‐depleted cells. This suggests that LPA‐induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc is secondary to Gq‐mediated inositol lipid breakdown.
In an effort to identify tyrosine‐phosphorylated signaling intermediates involved in Grb2 recruitment, we have detected several tyrosine‐phosphorylated proteins that bind to Grb2 in an agonist‐dependent manner. Of these, only p100 associates with Grb2 in a PTX‐sensitive manner. In other words, p100 is part of a Gi‐mediated signaling cascade. Furthermore, pre‐treatment of cells with any of the pharmacological inhibitors of LPA‐induced Ras/MAP kinase activation (genistein, staurosporine and wortmannin) precludes detection of Grb2‐associated p100.
The wortmannin sensitivity is of note, as it supports the notion that the tyrosine phosphorylation step requires upstream PI 3‐kinase activity (Hawes et al., 1996; see also Pace and Bourne, 1995). Antibody microinjection experiments in fibroblasts suggest that the α isoform of PI 3‐kinase is not required for LPA mitogenic signaling (Roche et al., 1994). Furthermore, constitutively activated PI 3‐kinase α activates Jun kinase and the p70 S6 kinase, but not MAP kinase in COS cells (Klippel et al., 1996). It therefore seems more likely that the γ isoform, which directly binds to G protein subunits (Stephens et al., 1994; Stoyanov et al., 1995), rather than the α isoform is involved in Gi‐mediated signaling. Whether the phosphatidylinositol 3‐phosphate produced by PI 3‐kinase γ is different from that produced by PI 3‐kinase α is currently not known. Some caution is needed, however, since PI 3‐kinase inhibitors such as wortmannin may affect enzymes other than PI 3‐kinase that function upstream of MAP kinase activation (Scheid and Duronio, 1996). After submission of this paper, Lopez‐Ilasaca et al. (1997) reported that PI 3‐kinase γ (but not α), when overexpressed in COS cells, activates MAP kinase in a Gβγ‐dependent manner.
The importance of p100–Grb2 interaction in mitogenic signaling is underscored by the finding that all activators of the Ras/MAP kinase pathway in Rat‐1 cells, notably LPA, thrombin and serum, induce p100–Grb2 association, whereas endothelin does not. Thus, there is an excellent correlation between G protein‐mediated activation of the Ras/MAP kinase pathway and p100–Grb2 complex formation. We are currently purifying p100 in order to establish its identity. Preliminary in vitro kinase experiments suggest that p100 is not a tyrosine kinase (data not shown). One possibility is that p100 is a multisite adaptor or docking protein, such as c‐Cbl or Gab1 (Holgado‐Madruga et al., 1996); but p100 is not c‐Cbl, as Cbl has a slightly lower electrophoretic mobility than p100 and, furthermore, is not phosphorylated in response to LPA. We also excluded the possibility that p100 is dynamin, a Grb2 binding GTPase mediating endocytosis (Wang and Moran, 1996; O.Kranenburg and I.Verlaan, unpublished observations).
In conclusion, our data support a model as depicted in Figure 7. Upon activation of Gi‐coupled receptors, βγ subunits stimulate the interaction of p100 with Grb2 via the consecutive activation of a wortmannin‐sensitive PI 3‐kinase (most likely the γ isoform) and a non‐Src tyrosine kinase. As a result of phosphatidylinositol 3‐phosphate production in the plasma membrane, tyrosine kinase activity might be recruited (see for example Rameh et al., 1995), which then phosphorylates p100. This may then lead to cooperative binding between p100 and the SH2 and SH3 domains of Grb2. Although we do not observe association of the isolated Grb2‐SH2 domain with p100, it may well be that SH3–p100 interaction is required for enhanced binding through phosphotyrosine–Grb2‐SH2 interaction. In a parallel but independent pathway, Gq‐mediated activation of PLC causes PKC activation and Ca2+ mobilization, somehow leading to enhanced tyrosine kinase activity and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc. Whether Src also participates in Gq‐mediated signaling is currently not clear. Our future experiments are directed towards establishing the identity of p100 and the kinase that mediates its tyrosine phosphorylation.
Materials and methods
Cell culture and transfection
COS‐7, Rat‐1 cells and immortalized Src‐deficient fibroblasts (Bockholt and Burridge, 1995) were routinely grown in Dulbecco‘s modified Eagle's medium containing 8% fetal calf serum and antibiotics. Transfection of COS‐7 cells was performed by the DEAE method. After transfection cells were exposed to serum‐free medium overnight. Before stimulation of either COS‐7 or Rat‐1 cells with LPA (10 mM; Sigma), EGF (50 ng/ml; Collaborative Biomedical Products) or endothelin (50 nM; Cambridge Research Biochemicals), the cells were pre‐incubated with either PTX (100 ng/ml; List Biological Laboratories) wortmannin (Sigma), genistein (Calbiochem), staurosporine (Sigma), PdBU (Calbiochem), ionomycin (Calbiochem) or thapsigargin (Calbiochem) at the indicated concentrations.
Cells were washed twice in ice‐cold phosphate‐buffered saline (PBS) and were lysed in ice‐cold lysis buffer (50 mM Tris, pH 7.4, 50 mM NaCl, 0.5% NP40, 0.1% SDS supplemented with 1 mM phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, 0.1 mg/ml trypsin inhibitor, 20 mM leupeptin, 0.1 mg/ml NaF, 0.5 mM Na3VO4 and 1 mg/ml Na4P2O7). After a 30 min incubation on ice the lysates were cleared by centrifugation (13 000 r.p.m., Eppendorf centrifuge, 15 min) and the protein concentration of the supernatant was determined with the BioRad assay kit. Equal amounts of lysate were run out on SDS–polyacrylamide gels and blotted onto nitrocellulose filters (Schleicher & Schuell). The filters were blocked in either 5% milk or in 1% bovine serum albumin. First antibodies were anti‐p44/p42 MAPK (polyclonal rabbit serum 600) and anti‐phosphotyrosine PY20 (ICN). Second HRP‐conjugated antibodies were from DAKO and signals were visualized using the Amersham ECL kit.
Myelin basic protein (MBP) phosphorylation assay
COS‐7 cells (5 cm dishes) were transfected with 1 mg pEXVmycERK2, encoding myc‐tagged ERK2. ERK2 was then immunoprecipitated with the monoclonal anti‐myc antibody 9E10 and the kinase activity towards MBP was measured as described. Co‐transfection of pEXVmycERK2 with pMT2‐N17Ras, pMT2‐K295Msrc, pMT2‐Shc(SH2) or pCMV‐lacZ in the controls was performed at a 1:5 ratio. Expression from all constructs was routinely confirmed by Western blotting.
Src–p110–p130 complex formation
Rat‐1 cells were incubated in serum‐free medium overnight and were subsequently stimulated with either LPA or endothelin. The cells were rinsed twice in PBS and were lysed in a buffer containing 100 mM Tris, pH 7.4, 0.1% Triton X‐100 and 10 mM EGTA supplemented with protease and phosphatase inhibitors. The lysates were then incubated with 1 μg purified monoclonal anti‐src antibody (Oncogene Science Ab1, cl.327) and rocked in a cold room for 2 h. Protein A beads, pre‐coated with rabbit anti‐mouse antiserum, were then used to collect the immunocomplexes for 1 h. The beads were subsequently washed three times in lysis buffer and the immunocomplexes were assayed for tyrosine‐phosphorylated src‐associating proteins by immunoblotting.
Shc phosphorylation assay
Rat‐1 or COS7 cells were incubated in serum‐free medium overnight, pre‐treated with inhibitors and subsequently stimulated with LPA or EGF. The cells were then rinsed twice in ice‐cold PBS and were lysed in Shc lysis buffer (50 mM Tris, pH 7.4, 1% NP40, 1 mM EDTA and 150 mM NaCl supplemented with protease and phosphatase inhibitors). The lysates were incubated on ice for 30 min and subsequently cleared by centrifugation (13 000 r.p.m.). Equal amounts of lysate were then incubated for 2 h with 1 μg rabbit polyclonal anti‐Shc antibody (kindly provided by Dr H.Bos) and the immunocomplexes were collected on protein A beads (1 h). The immunocomplexes were washed three times in lysis buffer. The tyrosine phosphorylation state of the Shc proteins was then assayed by anti‐phosphotyrosine immunoblotting.
GST FISH experiments
Cell lysates were prepared in a buffer containing 50 mM Tris, 250 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA and 0.1% Triton X‐100 supplemented with protease and phosphatase inhibitors. Aliquots of 2 μg purified GST–Grb2 fusion proteins or GST alone were then added to the lysates and were incubated for 30 min on ice. Glutathione‐coated beads were then used to collect the GST fusion proteins. The beads were washed three times in lysis buffer and were analyzed by anti‐phosphotyrosine immunoblotting.
We thank Linda Smit for GST–Grb2 fusion constructs, Dr Sara Courtneidge for dominant‐negative Src cDNA, Dr P.Pellicci for Shc constructs and Dr K.Burridge for Src‐deficient fibroblasts. This work was supported by the Dutch Cancer Society.
- Copyright © 1997 European Molecular Biology Organization